What is Finance? An introduction to finance that will assist you

Hey! Do you believe that the term “finance” is always associated with big firms and corporations? Certainly not! The term ” monetary” has significance in everyone’s day-to-day lives.

What is finance, and how can we describe it broadly? Is there a variety of them? 

How many classes of financial instruments? All of these inquiries will be responded to in this blog, and you’ll hold a better understanding of finance.

What is finance?

Banking, investments, capital markets, leverage, credit, and other money-related activities are all part of finance. It encompasses personal, government, and company financial actions such as budgeting, saving, investing, borrowing, and managing funds. Finance is concerned with organising the money in an effective and efficient way.

Kinds of finance:


Every person, entity, and government sector need funds to survive in the market. Mainly it includes 5 categories:

  1. Personal Finance
  2. Corporate Finance
  3. Government or public Finance.
  4. Investment Management
  5. Risk Management

1. Personal Finance


Personal Finance refers to the rational planning of investing and saving by taking the potential risk. The central area for Finance is to earn, expend, conserve, and fund.


It is concerned with education fees and spending on durable goods; For example, Investment in Insurance, Real Estate and Bikes, cars, and retirement.

2. Corporate Finance


Corporate finance is concerned with economic activities that help to operate an enterprise. Application and sources of funds are included in corporate finance.

Application of funds means where to invest the funds, and sourcing of funds means the references available to borrow funds. A company can borrow or invest in bonds, debentures, equity capital, etc.

3. Government or public Finance:


Public or government finance deals with taxation, expenditures, budgets, liabilities issue guidelines. The national government also ensures that there should be no recession or depression in the economy.

That’s why the government supplies adequate money to stabilise the economy and confirms that there is proper allocation of resources and revenue.

4. Investment Management:

Investment management means managing different securities. It mainly involves shares, stock, bonds and debentures, real estate and other  things. Its investors are Pension Funds, Charities, academic organizations, mutual funds, etc.

5. Risk Management:


Risk management is the approach of guarding the company’s goodwill. Risk management refers to the analysis of managing risk and counterbalancing the chance of profits. It is the method of computing risk; and planning, executing the strategies to control the risk.

After knowing what is finance and its kind. Let’s discuss significance of finance:


Significance of Finance:


  • Boost Profitability
  • For making Return on Investment (ROI)
  • Economic Stability


1. Boost Profitability :

The main objective of any organization is to increase profits. It is the only factor that makes the business grow. The company sets its target, what percentage of profits they want to achieve every year. The company mainly concentrates on the profit percentage rather than dollars or rupees.

2. For making Return on Investment (ROI):

Return on Investment is an excellent objective of finance. It is the most crucial objective in financial management. Mainly there are 2 types of Investment:

  1. Real estate
  2. Shares, bonds and debentures.


3. Economic Stability:

Financial steadiness guarantees that the corporation contains sufficient funds to fulfil its responsibilities and retrieve them in the future. To achieve this objective includes the following:

  •  Timely accumulating unpaid obligations,
  •  Settling off borrowed funds,
  •  Maintaining consistent revenue.


Types of Instruments in finance:

It refers to a deal between two or more parties for a monetary purpose. Financial instruments are vital for taking financial services for humans or enterprises. They are basically used for owning or investing. There is 2 type of financial instruments:


  1. Debt-Based Financial Instruments.
  2. Equity-Based Financial Instruments.


1. Debt-Based Financial Instruments:

Debt-Based Financial Instrument includes Short-term debt-based financial instruments, mainly for 1-2 years. For example, Treasury Bills and Commercial Paper, CD (certificate of deposits).

Debt-Based Financial Instrument also includes Long-term debt-based financial instruments which are more than a year. For example, Equity Shares, Preference Shares, bonds, debentures, futures, options, swaps, derivatives, etc.


2.  Equity-Based Financial Instruments:


Equity-based financial instruments include stocks. These are called owner’s capital. It contains equity shares, preference shares, exchange rate derivatives.


Points to be Remember:

  • Finance contains Banking, investments, capital markets, leverage, credit, and other money-related activities.
  • The primary area for Finance is to earn, expend, conserve, and fund.
  • Government finance deals with taxation, expenditures, budgets, liabilities issue guidelines.
  •   Corporate Finance comprises of application and sources of funds
  • Investment management deals with shares, stock, bonds and debentures, real estate.
  • Risk management is the approach to protecting the organisation’s goodwill.


Finance is concerned with the managing monetary aspects of an enterprise or persons. In this blog, we have discussed what is finance? and the different types of finance such as personal, corporate and public or government finance.


Moreover, we have also explained its instruments and significance in the organization, such as economic stability, boosting profits. I hope this blog will be beneficial to you in clearing all your doubts. Stay tuned for further updates.

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Written by Deepak-Tanwar

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